Saturday, December 3, 2011

vanadium chemical element

Vanadium a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23 It
is a steel-gray, bluish shimmering, very soft in its pure state
transition metal. The metal in the periodic table, together with the
heavier niobium, tantalum, and the fifth dubnium Group or vanadium
group. The majority of vanadium is used as ferrovanadium called in
steel production. The addition of vanadium in chromium-vanadium steels
leads to an increase in toughness and thus to an increased resistance
of the steel.
The element has different biological meanings, and is essential for
many organisms. It plays a role in controlling the phosphorylation of
enzymes and is used by bacteria for nitrogen fixation.
The most popular combination of vanadium, vanadium (V) oxide, which is
used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
Vanadium is a common element on earth, its share of the continental
crust is about 120 ppm. Have a similar frequency element zirconium,
and chromium chloride. The element is not dignified, but only bound in
different minerals before. Despite the frequency of the vanadium
deposits with high concentrations of the element are rare, many
vanadium minerals are not common. Compared to the Earth's crust, the
content in seawater is much lower, it lies at about 1.3 mg / l. [13]
Among the most important vanadium minerals are especially vanadates as
Vanadinite [Pb5 (VO4) 3Cl], descloizite Pb (Zn, Cu) [OH | VO4] and
carnotite [K2 (UO2) 2 (VO4) 2.3 H2O], and the vanadium sulfide
Patronit VS4. The majority of vanadium is found in trace amounts in

Vanadium - a metal with unlimited fields of application

Wieland Hopfe
The energy debate is moving society. Alternative energy is due to lack
of development unfortunately not feasible in a broad mass. A small
step in this direction is the development of novel vanadium batteries,
which allow unlimited recharging cycles without wear. However, this
requires a suitable treatment of this particular metal. Among these
the FRITSCH FRITSCH Cutting Mills and planetary ball mills play an
important role in research and development. These allow complex
comminution of tough-metallic materials such as Vanadium.

small power plants vanadium redox flow battery

Battery tank
The vanadium redox flow battery
By Dr. Adam H. Whitehead
Small power plants
It is obvious that the vanadium redox battery particularly well suited
for stationary applications, which provides an operating time of
several years have and require frequent charging / discharging cycles.
The former, large-vanadium redox batteries were used as load balancing
in the network or as a large uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) for
entire factories - eg a battery pack with 3 MW and 1.5 MWh in Sanyo's
LCD plant in Tottori, Japan. The new generation of smaller batteries
is better suited for small island power plants - "remote area power
supplies" (RAPS) - together with renewable energy sources or diesel
generators. This RAPS provide enough power available for homes,
businesses and telecom equipment.
When considering a RAPS system with a diesel generator, a typical
total run time of the diesel generator set with approximately 18 000
hours - assuming regular maintenance. The diesel generator is very
efficient when it is operated close to maximum capacity, but with
greatly reduced efficiency at lower loads. By adding a vanadium redox
battery, the diesel generator can be operated in two points: with
maximum efficiency and off. Energy that is not used by the load is
stored in the battery.

vanadium redox flow battery history

The vanadium redox flow battery
By Dr. Adam H. Whitehead
History and comparison with other battery types
Already in the 19th Century was known batteries in which the
electrolyte flowed by gravity to prevent the formation of gas bubbles
at the electrodes. Similarly, we already knew redox fuel - a fuel cell
that contained a redox battery element. Modern redox flow batteries
were invented in 1949 by Prof. Walter Kangro and patented [1]. The
development of useful systems, however, took place until 1970, when
NASA began to explore these energy stores.
After examining many different systems developed by NASA functioning
iron-chromium redox flow batteries. These were fairly complex and
suffered from a steady and irreversible loss of capacity, since iron
and chromium diffused through the membrane. In 1986, the Scylla of
Prof. Maria-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales, Australia,
developed for solving the problem of membrane junction has been
patented [2]. She sat in two vanadium electrolyte. Vanadium diffused
equally true, but the steady loss of capacity was now completely
reversible by simply recharging.
Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd.. [3] adapted the vanadium redox flow
battery of Prof. Scylla-Kazacos, to produce the first generation of
large batteries. Sumitomo vanadium redox batteries were installed
exclusively in Japan. VRB Power Inc. [4] used Sumitomo reactors for
its large battery installations in South Africa, Australia and the

The vanadium redox flow battery

Each charge / discharge cycle batteries usual stressed out because of
the charge transfer changes the volume of the electrodes. They are
usually not suitable for operation with many cycles and deep
discharge. Redox batteries, however, work with two liquid electrolyte
and can withstand changes in volume without stress. They are suitable
for many cycles, rapid and deep discharge cycles consequences.
By Dr. Adam H. Whitehead
A vanadium redox flow battery had been with the appearance of
conventional batteries and accumulators little in common. Rather, it
resembles a small chemical plant. Here you can find tanks that are
filled with green liquid blue - the color changes during charging -,
pumps, valves, sensors and reactors. And the battery is large: the
most commercial systems in the power range of 0.1 - 4 MW have a mass
of some 100 t. Recently, however, a new generation of redox batteries
in the range of 1 to 10 kW, small enough to be found in standard ISO
containers place.
What is now a vanadium redox flow battery? Like all rechargeable
batteries converts it to load the electricity into chemical energy and
makes electricity by reversing the chemical reaction during discharge
ready. The main difference from conventional batteries is that here
the chemical reactions take place only in solutions. In the vanadium
redox battery are two solutions, called electrolytes, are used: one
for the positive and negative reactions for. Chemically speaking, both
solutions are very similar: vanadium salts that are dissolved in

American Vanadium Corp.. announces positive feasibility study for Gibellini Vanadium Project

DJ PRESS RELEASE / DDP DIRECT American Vanadium Corp.. announces
positive feasibility study for Gibellini vanadium project
After-tax IRR of 43% and NPV of $ 170.1 million
(Ddp direct) All dollar values ​​are stated in U.S. dollars, unless
otherwise noted.
The Gibellini project would be the only mine in the U.S., primarily
in the vanadium would be degraded. It was planned as a day,
heap-construction project. The metallurgical tests were by McClelland
Laboratories, Inc. performed in Sparks (Nevada) under the direction of
The Roskill Consulting Group in London ("Roskill") reported in the
vanadium market outlook, they pay for AMEC as part of the feasibility
study prepared. "2012 is the global vanadium market in surplus, which
will begin in the next few years to sink in 2014, will reach the price
$ 10/Pfund pentoxide and $ 45/kg ferrovanadium, as the market prepared
for a potential deficit in 2015. Although predicted in prices fast
climbs, awaits Roskill, that they are below the record high in 2005
will remain. Taking into account the actual $ figures from 2010, the
vanadium prices expected to be during the entire forecast period,
below the 2005 figures. But could any problems that may prevent the
introduction of vanadium on the market, or delay, leading to a deficit
which would increase the prices. " The Roskill Consulting Group has
not taken into account in their calculations, a possible demand for
vanadium in relation to the flow battery or electric cars.

Tailor-made steel pipes are the backbone of the Nord Stream pipeline

Plant: Since 8 November provides the Nord Stream natural gas pipeline
from Russia directly to Germany. Before Chancellor Angela Merkel and
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, the first of future two-leg was put
into operation, equipment and machinery manufacturers were required to
bring maximum benefits for the construction of 1224 km long pipeline.
For the large-diameter pipes are provided for customized high-tech
VDI news, Düsseldorf, 25 11th 11, Si
The Nord Stream pipeline will continue to be with their two strands
each of length 1224 km one of the longest underwater pipelines in the
world. You should have a total annual transport capacity of about 55
billion m3 of natural gas. When fully commissioned in the next year,
the pipeline will connect the major gas reserves in Russia with the
European gas pipeline network. Both strands of 200 000 pipes with 1153
mm internal diameter and wall thickness between 26.8 mm and 41 mm are
required. Only the German manufacturers were responsible for the
production of about 140 000 tubes.
Pipes will be increasingly produced from high-strength steels such as
X65 and X100, the technical term for the strength of pipe grades. The
advantages: The pipes are significantly more resistant to
environmental influences. And they can be operated with a larger
internal pressure. At full capacity of the Nord Stream pipeline, the